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2019年10自学考试00015《英语(二)》串讲(三)

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2019年10自学考试00015《英语(二)》串讲(三)


1.主谓一致的三条原则

(1)语法一致,即在语法形式上取得一致。

Human beings enjoy learning.

Everybody’s understanding is incomplete.

(2)意义一致,即根据意义来处理一致关系。

The people there are fighting for the independence of their country.

Ten dollars was a lot of money at that time.

(3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。

There is a pen,two pencils and an eraser in the pencil box.

Neither the boy nor his teachers know the answer.

2.集体名词作主语时与动词的一致

(1)当主语为furniture,equipment,machinery等词时,谓语动词通常用单数。

The furniture in that shop is all made in China.

Office equipment is very expensive nowadays.

(2)集体名词如people,cattle,police,poultry等往往作复数用。

Some people drive madly in this country.

Many cattle have died because of the flood.

(3)family,government,class,committee,audience,team,public等词被视作一个整体时,其后的动词用单数;被视为构成整体的个体时,其后的动词则为复数。

His family is a happy one.

His family are all interested in stampcollecting

3.并列主语与动词的一致

(1)当“名词+名词”表示一种事物时,用单数形式。

Bacon and eggs is a very popular British breakfast.

(2)当主语是由and,both...and连接的并列结构时,如果主语所指的不是一种事物,动词则用复数形式。

Jack and Mary are in love with each other.

Both Tom and John are absent today.

(3)在由or 或 nor 连接的并列结构中,动词单、复数形式一般与or 或 nor 后面的名词或代词保持一致。

He or his brothers are to blame for this.

Neither she nor you are mistaken.

(4)not only...but also 连接的结构作主语时,动词的单、复数形式依据 but also 后的名词或代词。

Not only Fred but also his parents love this small pet dog.

Not only the boys but also their mother is very ill.

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